Manuscript Addition: I purchased this original M. S. of Palmer, an attendant in the Antique Gallery at the British Museum,
on the 30th April 1847. Palmer knew Blake personally. and it was from the artist's wife that he had the present M.S.
which he sold me for 10
s.. Among the sketches there are one or two profiles of Blake himself.
Illustrated div[? indecipherable text] ation is by Robt. Blake but with neither his brother's ease and vigour nor his heavenly?
Editorial Description: DGR's faded pencil note on the verso of the bound volume's front fly leaf.
Transcription Gap: leaves 1-58 (original Blake material)
Note: The number 1 is crossed out and replaced by 62 written in the upper right corner in
All that is of any value in the foregoing pages
has here been copied
- Was Jesus chaste, or did he
- Give any lessons of chastity?—
- Jesis sat in Moses' chair;
- They brought the adulterous woman there;
- Moses commands she be stoned to death.
- What was the sound of Jesus' breath?
- He laid his hand on Moses' law:
20The ancient heavens in silent awe,
- Writ with curses from Pole to Pole,
- All away began to roll.
- The earth trembling and naked lay,
- In secret bed of mortal clay,
- And she heard the breath of God
- As she heard it by Eden's flood.
- “Good and evil are no more:
- Sinai's trumpets! cease to roar;
Transcribed Footnote (page [62v]):
* This was spoken by my spectre to Voltaire, Bacon, &c.
Note: The number 3 is crossed out and replaced by 63 written in the upper right corner in
- Cease, finger of God, to write—
30“The Heavens are not clean in thy sight.”
- To be good only, is to be
- A God, or else a Pharisee.
- Thou angel of the Presence Divine
- That did'st create this body of mine,
- Wherefore hast thou writ these laws
- And created Hell's dark jaws?
- My presence I will take from thee;
- A cold leper thou shalt be.
- Though thou was so pure and bright
40That Heaven was impure in thy sight,—
- Though thine oath turned Heaven pale,—
- Though thy covenant built Hell-jail,—
- Though thou didst all to Chaos roll
- With the serpent for its soul,—
- Still the breath divine doth move,
- And the breath divine is Love.
- Woman, fear not; let me see
Note: The number 4 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- The seven devils that trouble thee;
- Hide not from my sight thy sin,
50That full forgiveness thou may'st win.
- Hath no man condemnèd thee?”
- “Then what is he
- Who shall accuse thee? Come ye forth,
- Ye fallen fiends of heavenly birth!
- Ye shall bow before her feet,—
- Ye shall lick the dust for meat,—
- And though ye cannot love, but hate,
- Ye shall be beggars at Love's gate.
60What was thy love? Let me see't.
- Was it love, or dark deceit?”
Manuscript Addition: Some [?] omitted
- My spectre around me, night and day,
- Like a wild beast guards my way;
- My Emanation far within
- Weeps incessantly for my sin.
- A fathomless and boundless deep—
- There we wander, there we weep;
- On the hungry craving wind
- My spectre follows thee behind.
Note: The number 6 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- He scents thy footsteps in the snow
10Wheresoever thou dost go.
- Through the wintry hail and rain
- When wilt thou return again?
- Dost thou not, in pride and scorn,
- Fill with tempests all my morn,
- And with jealousies and fears?—
- And fill my pleasant nights with tears?
- Till I turn from female love
- And root up the Infernal Grove,
- I shall never worthy be
20To step into Eternity.
- Seven of my sweet loves thy knife
- Has bereaved of their life:
- Their marble tombs I built with tears
- And with cold and shadowy fears.
Note: The number 7 is crossed out and replaced by 65 written in the upper right corner in
- Seven more loves weep night and day
- Round the tombs where my loves lay,
- And seven more loves attend at night
- About my couch with torches bright,
- And seven more loves in my bed
30Crown with vine my mournful head;
- Pitying and forgiving all
- Thy transgressions, great and small.
- When wilt thou return, and view
- My loves, and then in life renew?
- When wilt thou return and live?
- When wilt thou pity as I forgive?
- Let us agree to give up love
- And root up the Infernal Grove;
- Then shall we return, and see
40The worlds of happy Eternity.
Note: The number 8 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- Throughout all Eternity,
- I forgive you—you forgive me.
- As our dear Redeemer said:
- This the wine, and this the bread.
Manuscript Addition: not in Scott
- To find the western path,
- Right through the gates of wrath
- I urge my way;
- Sweet Morning leads me on;
- With soft repentant moan
- I see the break of day.
- The war of swords and spears,
- Melted by dewy tears,
- Exhales on high;
10The sun is freed from fears,
- And with soft grateful tears
- Ascends the sky.
Note: The number 9 is crossed out and replaced by 66 written in the upper right corner in
- “I see, I see!” the mother said,
- “My children will die for lack of bread!
- What more hath the merciless tyrant said?”
- The monk sat him down on her stony bed.
- His eye was dry,—no tear could flow,—
- A hollow groan first spoke his woe;
- He trembled and shuddered upon the bed;
- At length, with a feeble cry, he said:
- “My brother starved between two walls;
- Thy children's crying my soul appals;
- I mocked at the rack and griding chain,—
- My bent body mocks at their torturing pain.
- “Thy father drew his sword in the north,—
- By his strong courage he is marched forth;
- Thy brother has armèd himself in steel,
20To revenge the wrongs that thy Children feel.
- “But vain the sword and vain the bow,—
- They never can work War's overthrow;
- The hermit's prayer and the Widows tear
- Alone can free the World from fear.”
Note: The number 12 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- (He.) Where thou dwellest, in what grove,
- Tell me, fair one, tell me, love;
- Where thou thy charming nest dost built.
- O thou pride of every field.
- (She.) Yonder stands a lovely tree,—
- There I live and mourn for thee;
- Morning drinks my silent tear
- And evening winds my sorrow hear.
- (He.) O thou Summer's harmony,
10I have lived and mourned for thee;
- Each day I mourn along the wood,
- And night hath heard my sorrow loud.
- (He.) Come, on wings of joy will fly
- To where my bower is hung on high;
- Come, and make thy calm retreat
20Among green leaves and blossoms sweet.
- Why was Cupid a boy,
- And why a boy was he?
- He should have been a girl
- For aught that I can see.
- For he shoots with his bow,
- And the girl shoots with her eye,
- And they both are merry and glad
- And laugh when we do cry.
- And then he's so pierced with cares
- And wounded with arrowy smarts,
- That the whole business of his life
- Is to pick out the heads of the darts.
- 'Twas the Greek love of war
- That turned love into a boy
- And woman into a statue of stone;
20And away fled every joy.
- If e'er I grow to man's estate,
- O give to me a woman's fate;
- May I govern all both great and small,
- Have the last word, and take the wall.
Note: The number 15 is crossed out and replaced by 69 written in the upper right corner in
- Sleep, sleep, beauty-bright,
- Dreaming, in the joys of night;
- Sleep, sleep, in thy sleep
- Little sorrows sit and weep.
- Sweet babe, in thy face
- Soft desires I can trace,
- Secret joys and secret smiles;
- Little pretty infant wiles.
- As thy softest limbs I feel,
10Smiles as of the morning steal
- O'er thy cheek, and o'er thy breast
- Where thy little heart doth rest.
- O the cunning wiles that creep
- In thy little heart asleep!
- When thy little heart does wake,
- Then the dreadful light shall break.
Note: The number 16 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
Manuscript Addition: as in S S[?].
- When the voices of children are heard on the green
- And whisperings are in the dale,
- The days of youth rise fresh in my mind
- And my face turns grave and pale.
- Then come home, my children, the sun is
- gone down
- And the dews of night arise:
- Your spring and your day are wasted in play,
- And your winter and night in disguise.
- The look of love alarms
- Because 'tis filled with fire,
- But the look of soft deceit
- Shall win the lover's hire.
- Soft deceit and idleness,
- These are beauty's sweetest dress.
Note: The number 17 is crossed out and replaced by 70 written in the upper right corner in
- I heard an Angel singing
- When the day was springing:
- “Mercy, Pity, and Peace,
- Are the world's release.”
- So he sang all day
- Over the new-mown hay,
- Till the sun went down
- And haycocks looked brown.
- I heard a devil curse
10Over the heath and the furze:
- “Mercy could be no more
- If there were nobody poor,—
- And Pity no more could be
- If all were happy as ye,—
- And mutual fear brings Peace.
- Misery's increase
- Are Mercy, Pity, Peace.”
- At his curse the sun went down,
- And the heavens gave a frown.
- I give you the end of a golden string;
- Only wind it into a ball,
- It will lead you in at Heaven's gate
- Built in Jerusalem's wall.
Note: The number 18 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
Manuscript Addition: not printed
Editorial Description: Comment is positioned alongside the first two stanzas of this page.
- I laid me down upon a bank
- Where Love lay sleeping;
- I heard among the rushes dank
- Weeping, weeping.
- Then I went to the heath and the wild,
- To the thistles and thorns of the waste;
- And they told me how they were beguil'd,
- Driven out, and compelled to be chaste.
- I went to the garden of love,
10And I saw what I never had seen;
- A chapel was built in the midst,
- Where I used to play on the green.
- And the gates of this chapel were shut,
- And “
Thou shalt not,” writ over
- So I turned to the garden of love
- Which so many sweet flowers bore.
Note: The number 19 is crossed out and replaced by 71 written in the upper right corner in
- And I saw it was filled with graves,
- And tombstones where flowers should be;
- And priests in black gowns were walking their rounds,
binding [?] with briars my joys and desires.
Manuscript Addition: S. S[?]
- A flower was offer'd to me,
- Such a flower as May never bore;
- But I said “I've a pretty rose-tree,”
- And I passed the sweet flower o'er.
- Then I went to my pretty rose-tree,
- To tend her
it [?] by day and
- But my rose turned away with jealousy,
- And her thorns were my only delight.
Manuscript Addition: x
Editorial Description: The mark suggests a footnote, which does not appear.
- The angel who presided o'er my birth
- Said: “Little creature, formed of joy and mirth,
- Go, love without the help of anything on earth”
Note: The number 20 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- I saw a chapel all of gold
- That none did dare to enter in;
- And many weeping stood without,
- Weeping, mourning, worshipping.
- I saw a serpent rise between
- The white pillars of the door,
- And he forced and forced and forced
Down he the golden hinges tore;
- And along the pavement sweet
10Set with pearls and rubies bright,
- All his slimy length he drew,
- Till upon the altar white
- He vomited his poison out
- On the bread and on the wine.
- So I turned into a sty,
- And laid me down among the swine.
Note: The number 21 is crossed out and replaced by 72 written in the upper right corner in
- Never seek to tell thy love,
- Love that never told can be;
- For the gentle wind doth
- Silently, invisibly.
- I told my love, I told my love,—
- I told her all my heart,
- Trembling, cold, in ghastly fears.
- Ah! she did
- Soon after she was gone from me,
10A traveller came by,
- Silently, invisibly:
- He took her with a sigh.
- Great things are done when men and mountains meet;
- These are not done by jostling in the street.
Note: The number 22 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
Manuscript Addition: not in Scott
Editorial Description: A penciled “x“ marks the poem noted as omitted from Scott.
- As I wandered
) the forest
- The green leaves among,
- I heard a wild-flower
- Singing a song:
- “I slept in the earth,
- In the silent night;
- I murmured my thoughts
- And I felt delight.
- “In the morning I went,
10As rosy as morn,
- To seek for new joy;
- But I met with scorn.”
- The errors of a wise man make your rule,
- Rather than the perfections of a fool.
Note: The number 23 is crossed out and replaced by 73 written in the upper right corner in
Manuscript Addition: as in S S[?].
- O rose, thou art sick;
- The invisible worm,
- That flies in the night
- In the howling storm,
- Hath found out thy bed
- Of crimson joy,
- And his dark secret love
- Doth thy life destroy.
- Nought loves another as itself,
- Nor venerates another so;
- Nor is it possible to thought
- A greater than itself to know.
- Then, father, how can I love you
- Or any of my brothers more?
- I love you like the little bird
- That picks up crumbs before the door.
Note: The number 24 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
Transcribed Note (page [73v]):
(This poem I copy from Cunningham's Memoir of
Blake, where it is given in its complete
the volume printed during the life-time of the
poet. In one instance
nd line, 5
I have adopted,
as preferable, the reading to be
found in the M.S. D.G.C.R.)
- Tiger, tiger, burning bright
- In the forest of the night,
- What immortal hand or eye
- Framed thy fearful symmetry?
- In what distant deeps or skies
- Burned the fervour of thine eyes?
- On what wings dare he aspire—
- What the hand dare seize the fire?
- What the hammer, what the chain,
- Formed thy strength and forged thy brain?
- What the anvil? What dread grasp
- Dare thy deadly terrors clasp?
- When the stars threw down their spheres
- And watered heaven with their tears,
- Did he smile, his work to see?
20Did he who made the lamb make thee?
not in Scott X
Editorial Description: The note is crossed out
- I walked abroad on a snowy day,
- I asked the soft snow with me to play;
- She played and she melted in all her prime.
- Ah! that sweet love should be thought a crime!
Note: The number 26 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- “Love seeketh not itself to please,
- Nor for itself hath any care,—
- But for another's gives its ease,
- And builds a heaven in hell's despair.”
- So sung a little clod of clay,
- Trodden with the cattle's feet;
- But a pebble of the wood
- Warbled out these metres meet:—
- “Love seeketh only self to please,
10To bind another to its delight,—
- Joys in another's loss of ease,
- And builds a hell in heaven's despite.”
- I was angry with my friend;
- I told my wrath,—my wrath did end.
- I was angry with my foe;
- I told it not,—my wrath did grow.
Note: The number 27 is crossed out and replaced by 75 written in the upper right corner in
- Mock on, mock on, Voltaire, Rousseau,
- Mock on, mock on,—'tis all in vain!
- You throw the sand against the wind
- And the wind blows it back again.
- And every sand becomes a gem
- Reflected in the beams divine;
- Blown back, they blind the mocking eye,
- But still in Israel's paths they shine.
- Why should I care for the men of Thames,
- Or the cheating waters of chartered streams?—
- Or shrink at the little blasts of fear
- That the hireling blows into mine ear?
- Though born on the cheating banks of Thames,—
- Though his waters bathed my infant limbs,—
- The Ohio shall wash his stains from me.
- I was born a slave, but I go to be free.
Note: The number 28 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- I rose up at the dawn of day.
- “Get thee away, get thee away.
- Pray'st thou for riches? away, away!
- This is the Throne of Mammon grey.”
- Said I: “This sure is very odd;
- I took it to be the throne of God;
- Everything besides I have,—
- It is only for riches that I can crave.
- “I have mental joys and mental health,
10Mental friends and mental wealth;
- I've a wife that I love and that loves me;
- I've all but riches bodily.
- Then if for riches I must not pray,
- God knows it's little prayers I need say.”
- Dear mother, dear mother, the church is cold,
- But the alehouse is healthy and pleasant and warm;
- Besides, I can tell when I am used well;
- The poor parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell.
- But if at the church they would give us some ale
- And a pleasant fire our souls to regale,
- We'd stay and
we'd pray all the livelong day,
- Nor ever once wish from the church to stray.
Note: The number 30 is written in the upper left corner in pencil.
- Then God, like a father rejoicing to see
10His children as pleasant and happy as he,
- Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the barrel,
- But shake hands and kiss him, and there'd be no more hell.
- I asked a thief to steal me a peach;—
- He turned up his eyes.
- I asked a lithe lady to lie down;—
- Holy and meek, she cries.
- As soon as I went,
- An angel came;
- He winked at the thief,
- And smiled at the dame;
- And without one word spoke,
10Had a peach from the tree,—
- And 'twixt earnest and joke,
- Enjoyed the lady.
- To Chloe's heart young Cupid slyly stole,
- But he crept in at Myra's pocket-hole.
Note: The number 31 is crossed out and replaced by 77 written in the upper right corner in
Transcribed Note (page 77):
(It seems probable that the following lines were
intended as an introduction to the
series of designs
which Blake commenced in illustration of Dante.
The space I have left blank is occupied in the
M.S. by something completely
which appears from the context to be a proper
- The countless gold of a merry heart,
- The rubies and pearls of a loving eye,
- The idle man never can bring to the mart
- Nor the cunning hoard up in his treasury.
Transcribed Note (page [77v]):
(The following was probably written on some anti-visionary.)
- He's a blockhead who wants a proof of what he can't perceive,
- And he's a fool who tries to make such a blockhead believe.
Note: The numbers 33 and 43 are crossed out and replaced by 78 written in the upper right corner in
- My title as a genius thus is proved:—
- Not praised by Hayley, nor by Flaxman loved.
- Cromek loves artists as he loves his meat;
- He loves the art,—but 'tis the art to cheat.
- A pretty sneaking knave I knew . . . . . .
- Oh M
r. Cromek! how do you do?
- The Sussex men are noted fools,
- And weak in their brain-pan.
- I wonder if H— the painter
- Is not a Sussex man.
Manuscript Addition: not in Scott X
- Friends were quite hard to find, old authors say,
- But now they stand in everybody's way.
Note: The number 34 is crossed out and replaced by 79 written in the upper right corner in
Transcribed Note (page 79):
(N.B. I have compiled the following from various scat-
tered passages, wich may, or
may not, form a whole.)
Mr. B. having from early youth cultivated the two arts,
painting and engraving,
and during a period of forty
years never suspended his labors on copper for a single
day, submits with confidence to public patronage, and
requests the attention of
amateurs in a large stroke
engraving (3 f. 11i long by 1 f. high) containing 30
high-finished, whole-length portraits on horseback of
characters, where every character & every expression,
every lineament of
head, hand, and foot, every particular
of dress or costume, where every horse is
his rider; and the scene or landscape, with its villages,
churches, and the Inn in Southwark; is minutely
labored, not by the hands of journeymen,
but by the
original artist himself, even to the stuffs and embroidery
Note: The page is numbered 2 in ink, though the number 35 appears faintly in pencil.
of the garments, the hair upon the horses, the
the trees, and the stones and gravel upon the road. The
of coloring and depth of work peculiar to
Mr. B.'s prints will be here found accompanied
precision not to be seen but in the work of an original
Sir Jeffery Chaucer and the nine and twenty Pilgrims
on their journey to
The time chosen is early morning before sun-rise,
when the jolly company are
just quitting the Tabarde
Inn. The knight and Squire with the Squire's Yeoman
the procession; then the youthful Abbess, her Nun
and three Priests; her greyhounds
- “Of small hounds had she that she fed
- With roast flesh, milk and wastel-bread.”
Next follow the Friar and Monk; then the Tapster, the
Pardoner, the Sumpnor,
and the Manciple. After these
“our Hoste” who occupies the centre
of the cavalcade,—
(the fun afterwards exhibited on the road may be
depicted in his jolly face)—directs them to the
knight (whose solemn
gallantry no less fixes attention)
as the person who will be likely to commence their
Note: The numbers 36 and 27 are crossed out and replaced by 80 written in the upper right corner in
The last Judgement is not fable or allegory, but vision.
Fable or allegory
a totally distinct and inferior kind
of poetry. Vision or
imagination is a representation of
what eternally exists really and unchangeably. Fable
allegory is formed by the daughters of Memory: imagination
is surrounded by the
daughters of inspiration, who in
the aggregate are called Jerusalem. Fable is allegory,
what critics call
is vision itself. The Hebrew
Bible and the Gospel of Jesus are not allegory, but eternal
vision or imagination of all
that exists. Note here
that fable or allegory is seldom without some vision.
“Pilgrim's Progress” is full of it; the Greek poets the same.
allegory and vision ought to be known as two dis-
tinct things and so called for the sake
of eternal life.
The [ancients exercise fable] when they assert that Jupiter
usurped the throne of his Father Saturn, and brought on
an iron age, and begat on
Mnemosyne or Memory the
great Muses, which are not inspiration as the Bible is.
Reality was forgot and the vanities of time and space
Note: The number 28 appears at the upper left in ink.
only remembered and called reality. The Greeks
Chronos or Time as a very aged man: this is fable, but the
of Time is in eternal youth. I have however
somewhat accommodated my figure of Time to
opinion, as I myself am also infected with it and my vision
infected, and I see Time aged, alas! too much so. Alle-
gories are things that relate to
moral virtues; moral vir-
tues do not exist; they are allegories and dissimulations:
but Time and Space are real beings, a male and a female.
Time is a man, Space is a
woman, and her masculine
portion is Death._ Such is the mighty difference between
allegoric fable and spiritual mystery. Let it here be noted
that the Greek fables
originated in spiritual mystery and
real visions which are lost and clouded in fable and
alegory, while the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Gospel are
genuine, preserved by the
Saviour's mercy. The nature of
my work is visionary or imaginative; it is an endeavor
to restore what the ancients called the golden age.
Plato has made Socrates say that poets and prophets
do not know or understand
what they write or utter.
This is a most pernicious falsehood. If they do not pray,
is an inferior kind to be called knowing? Plato confutes
Note: The number 29 is crossed out and replaced by 81 in pencil.
The Last Judgement is one of these stupendous visions.
I have represented it as I
saw it: to different people it appears
differently, as everything else does; for, tho'
on earth things
seem permanent, they are less permanent than a shadow,
as we all
know too well. In eternity one thing never
changes into another thing; each identity is
sequently Apuleius's Golden Ass and Ovid's Metamorphoses
of the like kind are fable; yet they contain vision,
in a sublime degree, being derived
from real vision in
more ancient writings. Lot'ss wife being changed into a
of salt alludes to the mortal body being rendered
a permanent statue, but not changed or
into another identity while it retains its own indivi-
duality. A man
can never become ass nor horse; some
are born with shapes of men who may be both, but
eternal identity is one thing and corporeal vegetation
is another thing. Changing
water into wine by Jesus,
and into blood by Moses, relates to vegetable nature also.
The nature of visionary fancy or imagination is
very little known, and the
eternal nature and perma-
nence of its ever-existent images is considerd as less
Note: The number 30 appears at the upper left in ink.
permanent than the things of vegetative and
nature. Yet the oak dies as well as the lettuce; but its
and individuality never dies, but re-
news by its seed. Just so the imaginative image
by the seed of contemplative thought. The writings of
illustrate these conceptions of the visionary
fancy by their various sublime and divine
as seen in the worlds of vision.
This world of imagination is the world of eternity. It is
the divine bosom into
which we shall all go after the
death of the vegetated body. This world of imagination
is infinite and eternal, whereas the world of generation
or vegetation is finite
and temporal. There exist in
that eternal world the permanent realities of every
thing which we see are reflected in this vegetable glass
All things are comprehended in their eternal forms
in the divine body of the
Saviour, the true vine of eternity,
the human imagination, who appeared to me as coming
to judgement among his saints and throwing off the
temporal that the eternal might
be established: around
him were seen the images of existences according to
Note: The number 31 is crossed out and replaced by 82 in pencil.
Transcribed Note (page 82):
* The just arise on his right & the wicked on his left hand. *
a certain order suited to my imaginative eye, as follows.
Jesus seated between the two pillars, Jachin and Boaz,
with the word divine of
revelation on his knee, and on
each side the four and twenty elders sitting in judgment;
the heavens opening around him by unfolding the clouds
around his throne
The old Heaven & old Earth are passing away, & and the New Heaven
and New Earth descending.
: a sea of fire issues from before
the throne: Adam and
Eve appear first before the judge-
ment seat in humiliation: Abel surrounded by
cents, and Cain with the flint in his hand with which
he slew his brother,
falling with the head downwards.
From the cloud on which Eve stands Satan is seen falling
headlong, wound round by the tail of the serpent, whose
bulk, nailed to the cross
round which he wreathes, is
falling into the abyss. Sin is also represented as a female
bound in one of the serpent's folds, surrounded by her
fiends. Death is chained to
the cross; and Time falls
together with Death, dragged down by a demon crowned
with laurel. Another demon with a key has the charge
of Sin and is dragging her down by
the hair. Beside
them a figure is seen scaled with iron scales from
head to feet,
precipitating himself into the abyss with the
sword and balances; he is [?] King of
Note: The number 32 appears at the upper left in ink.
On the right, beneath the cloud on which Abel kneels,
is Abraham with Hagar and
Ishmael on the left. Abel
kneels on a bloody cloud, descriptive of those churches before
the flood, that they were filled with blood and fire and
vapor of smoke: even till
Abraham's time the vapor and
heat was not extinguished. These states exist now: Man
passes on, but states remain for ever; he passes thro' them
like a traveller, who
may as well suppose that the places
he has passed thro' exist no more as a man may
pose that the states he has passed thro' exist no more:
every thing is
eternal._ Ishmael is Mahomed: and be-
neath the falling figure of Cain is Moses casting
tables of stone into the deeps. It ought to be understood
that the persons
Moses and Abraham are not here
meant, but the states signified by those names, the
viduals being representatives or visions of those states,
as they were
vealed to mortal man in the series
of divine revelations as they are
written in the Bible.
These various states I have seen in my imagination; when
distant, they appear as one man, but, as you appr
they appear multitudes
of nations. Abraham hovers
above his posterity which appear as multitudes of chil-
Note: The number 33 is crossed out and replaced by 83 in pencil.
dren ascending from the earth surrounded by stars,
was said: “As the stars of heaven for
and his twelve sons hover beneath the feet of
and recieve their children from the earth. I have seen
when, at a
distance, multitudes of men in harmony appear
like a single infant, sometimes in the
arms of a female;
this represented the Church.
But to proceed with the description of those on the left
hand. Beneath the cloud
on which Moses kneels are two
figures, a male and female, chained together by the feet;
they represent those who perishd by the flood. Beneath
them a multitude of their
associates are seen falling
headlong. By the side of them is a mighty fiend with a
book in his hand, which is shut; he represents the person
named in Isaiah XXII C and 20
V._ Eliakim the son of
Hilkiah; he drags Satan down headlong; he is crowned
oak. By the side of the scaled figure representing
[?] King of Bashan, is a figure with
a basket, emptying
out the vanities of riches and worldly honors; he is
the Jebusite, master of the threshing floor. Above
him are two figures elevated on a
the Pharisees who plead their own righteousness before
Note: The number 34 appears at the upper left in ink.
the throne; they are weighed down by two fiends.
the man with the basket are three fiery fiends with
grey beards and
scourges of fire; they represent cruel
laws; they scourge a gro
of figures down into the
deeps. Beneath them are various figures in attitudes
contention, representing various states of misery,
which alas! every one on earth is
liable to enter into
and against which we should all watch. The ladies
pleased to see that I have represented the furies
by three men and not by three women.
It is not be-
cause I think the ancients wrong; but they will be
remember that mine is vision and not
fable. The spectator may suppose them Clergymen
in the pulpit scourging sin instead of forgiving it.
The earth beneath these falling groupes of figures
is rocky and burning and
seems as if convulsed by
earthquakes. A great city on fire is seen in the dis-
are fleeing upon the mountains. On the
foreground hell is
opened, and many figures are descending
into it down stone steps and beside a gate
rock where Sin and Death are to be closed eternally by
that fiend who
carries the key in one hand and drags
Note: The number 35 is crossed out and replaced by 84 in pencil.
them down with the other. On the rock and above the
gate, a fiend with wings urges the wicked onwards with
fiery darts; he is Hazael
the Syrian who drives abroad
all those who rebell against their Saviour. Beneath the
steps, Babylon represented by a king crowned, grasping his
sword and his sceptre;
he is just awakend out of his
grave. Around him are other kingdoms arising to
ment, represented in this picture as single personages
according to the
descriptions in the Prophets. The figure
dragging up a woman by her hair represents the
as do those contending on the sides of the pit; and in
man strangling a woman represents a
Two persons—one in purple the other in scarlet—are
descending down the steps into the pit; these are Caiphas
and Pilate, two states where
all those reside who calum-
niate and murder under pretence of holiness and justice;
Caiphas has a blue flame like a mitre on his head;
Pilate has bloody hands that
never can be cleansed. The
females behind them represent the females belonging to
such states who are under perpetual terrors and vain
dreams, plots and secret deceit.
Those figures that
Note: The number 36 appears at the upper left in ink.
descend into the flames before Caiphas and Pilate
Judas and those of his class; Achitophel is also here
with the cord in his
Between the figures of Adam and Eve appears a fiery
gulph descending from the
sea of fire before the throne.
In this cataract four angels descend headlong with
four trumpets to awake the dead. Beneath these is the
seat of the harlot named Mystery
in the Revelations;
she is siezed by two beings, each with three heads; they
represent vegetative existence; as it is written in Reve-
lations, they strip her naked
and burn her with fire;
—it represents the eternal consumption of vegetable
life and death with its lusts; the wreathed torches
in their hands represents
eternal fire which is the fire
of generation or vegetation; it is an eternal
mation. Those who are blessed with imaginative
vision see this eternal
female and tremble at what
others fear not, while they despise and laugh at what
others fear. Beneath her feet is a flaming cavern
in which are seen her kings and
warriors descend in flames, lamenting and looking
upon her in
astonishment and terror, and hell is
Note: The number 37 is crossed out and replaced by 85 in pencil.
opened beneath her seat. On the left hand the great
Red Dragon with seven heads and ten horns; he has
salary-book of accusations lying
on the rock open
before him; he is bound in chains by two strong demons;
Gog and Magog, who have been compelled to
subdue their master (Ezekiel XXXVIII C. 8V.)
hammer and tongs about to new-create the seven-headed
graves beneath are opened and the dead
awake and obey the call of the trumpet; those on
right hand awake in joy, those on the left in horror.
Beneath the Dragon's
cavern a skeleton begins to ani-
mate, starting into life at the trumpet's sound, while
the wicked contend with each other on the brink of
perdition. On the right, a
youthful couple are awaked
by their children; an aged patriarch is awaked by his
aged wife; he is Albion, our ancestor, patriarch of the
Atlantic Continent, whose
history preceded that of the
Hebrews, and in whose sleep or chaos creation began;
the good woman is Brittannica, the wife of Albion; Jeru-
salem is their daughter. Little
infants creep out of the
flowery mould into the green fields of the blessed, who
in various joyful companies embrace and ascend to
Note: The number 38 appears at the upper left in ink.
The persons who ascend to meet the lord coming in
the clouds with power and
great glory are representations
of those states described in the Bible under the names
of the fathers before and after the flood. Noah is seen
in the midst of these
canopied by a rainbow. On his
right hand Shem and on his left Japhet: these three
persons represent Poetry, Painting, and Music, the
three powers in man of conversing
which the flood did not sweep away. Above Noah is
universal represented by a woman surrounded
by infants. There is such a state in
eternity: it is
composed of the innocent civilized heathen and the
savage, who, having not the law, do by
nature the things contained in the law. This
appears like a female crowned with stars driven
into the wilderness; she has
the moon under her feet.
The aged figure with wings having a writing-tablet and
taking account of the numbers who arise is that Angel
of the Divine Presence mentiond in
Exodus XIV C. 19v;
and in other places this Angel is frequently called by
of Jehovah Shekinah[?], the I am of the oaks of
Note: The number 39 is crossed out and replaced by 86 in pencil.
Around Noah and beneath him are various figures
risen into the air. Among these
are three females repre-
senting those who are not of the dead, but of those found
alive at the Last Judgement; they appear to be innocently
gay and thoughtless, not being
among the condemnd,
because ignorant of crime in the midst of a corrupted age;
(the Virgin Mary was of this class): a mother meets her
numerous family in the arms of
their father, these are
representations of the Greek learned and wise, as also
those of other nations, such as Egypt and Babylon,
in which were multitudes who shall
meet the Lord
coming in the clouds.
The children of Abraham or Hebrew Church are re-
presented as a stream of
figures in which are seen stars
somewhat like the milky way; they ascend from the
earth, where figures kneel embracing above the graves,
and represent religion or
civilized life, such as it is
in the Christian Church who are the offspring of the
Hebrew. Just above the graves and above the spot where
the infants creep out of the
grave, stand —a man
and woman—; these are the primitive
Note: The number 40 appears at the upper left in ink.
two figures in purifying flames by the side of the
cavern represents the latter state of the Church, when
on the verge of
perdition yet protected by a flaming
sword. Multitudes are seen ascending from the green
fields of the blessed, in which a Gothic Church is re-
presentative of true art,
called Gothic in all ages by those
who follow the fashion, as that is called which is
without shape or fashion. By the right hand of Noah, a
woman with children
represents the state calld Laban
the Syrian; it is the remains of civilisation in the
state from whence Adam was taken. Also on the
right hand of Noah a female descends
to meet her
lover or husband, representative of that love called
looks for no other heaven than
their beloved and in him sees all reflected as in a
glass of eternal diamond.
On the right hand of these rise the diffident and
humble, and on their left a
solitary woman with
her infant; these are caught up by three aged men
as suddenly emerging from the blue sky
for their help; these three aged men represent
providence as opposd to and distinct from divine
Note: The number 41 is crossed out and replaced by 87 in pencil.
vengeance, represented by three aged men on the side
the picture among the wicked with scourges of fire.
If the spectator could enter into these images in his
them on the fiery chariot of
his contemplative thought, if he could enter into Noah's
rainbow, could make a friend and companion of one
of these images of wonder which
always intreats him
to leave mortal things, (as he must know),—then
would he arise from the grave, then would he meet
the Lord in the air, and then he would
be happy. General
knowledge is remote knowledge: it is in particulars
consists and happiness too. Both in art
and in life general masses are as much art as a
pasteboard man is human. Every man has eyes,
nose, and mouth; this every idiot
knows; but he
who enters into and discriminates most minutely
the manners and
intentions, the characters in all
their branches, is the alone wise or sensible man,
and on this discrimination all art is founded. I
intreat then that the spectator
will attend to the
hands and feet, to the lineaments of the counte-
are all descriptive of character, and
Note: The number 42 appears at the upper left in ink.
not a line is drawn without intention. And that most
discriminate and particular. As poetry admits not
a letter that is insignificant,
so painting admits
not a grain of sand or a blade of grass insignificant,
—much less an insignificant blur or mark.
Above the head of Noah is Seth. This state called
Seth is male and female in a
higher state of hap-
piness and wisdom than Noah, being nearer the
innocence. Beneath the feet of Death two
figures represent the two seasons of Spring and
Autumn, while beneath the feet of Noah four seasons
represent the changed state
made by the flood.
By the side of Seth is Elijah; he comprehends all
the prophetic characters. He
is seen on his fiery
chariot, bowing before the throne of the Saviour. In
manner the figures of Seth and his wife comprehend
the Fathers before the flood and
their generations; when
seen remote, they appear as one man. A little below
on his right are two figures, a male and a
female, with numerous children. These
those who were not in the line of the Church, and
yet were saved from
among the antediluvians who
Note: The number 43 is crossed out and replaced by 88 in pencil.
perished. Between Seth and these a female figure
sents the solitary state of those who previous to the flood
walked with God.
All these arise toward the opening cloud before the
throne, led onward by
triumphant groups of infants.
Between Seth and Elijah three female figures crowned
with garlands represent Learning and Science which
accompanied Adam out of Eden.
The cloud that opens rolling apart before the throne
and before the new heaven
and the new earth, is composed
of various groups of figures, particularly the four
creatures mentioned in Revelations as surrounding the
throne. These I
suppose to have the chief agency in
removing the old heavens and the old earth to make
for the new heaven and the new earth to descend from
the throne of God and of
the Lamb. That living creature
on the left of the throne gives to the seven Angels the
seven phials of the wrath of God with which they, hovering
over the deeps beneath,
pour out upon the wicked their
plagues. The other living creatures are descending with
a shout and with the sound of the trumpet, and di-
recting the combats in the upper
elements. In the two
Note: The number 44 appears at the upper left in ink.
corners of the picture, on the left hand Apollyon is
before the sword of Michael, and, on the right the two
subduing their enemies.
On the cloud are opend the books of remembrance
of life and of death; before
that of life on the right
some figures bow in lamentation: before that of death
the left the Pharisees are pleading their own righte-
ousness: the one shines with beams
of light, the other
utters lightnings and tempests.
A last judgement is necessary because fools flourish.
Nations flourish under
wise rulers and are depressd
under foolish rulers: it is the same with individuals
of nations. Works of art can only be produced in
perfection where the man is either in
affluence or is
above the care of it. Poverty is the fool's rod which at
turned on his own back. That is a last judge-
ment when men of real art govern and
fall. Some people and not a few artists have as-
serted that the painter
of this picture would not have
done so well if he had been properly encouraged. Let
those who think so reflect on the state of nations
under poverty and their
incapability of art. Though
Note: The number 45 is crossed out and replaced by 89 in pencil.
art is above either, the argument is better for
poverty, and, though he would not have been a greater
he would have produced greater works of art
in proportion to his means. A last judgement
for the purpose of making bad men better, but for the
purpose of hindering
them from opressing the good with
poverty and pain by means of such vile arguments and
Around the throne heaven is opened and the nature
of eternal things displayed,
all springing from the divine
humanity. All beams from him: he is the bread and
the wine; he is the water of life. Accordingly on each
side of the opening heaven
appears an Apostle: that on
the right represents Baptism; that on the left represents
the Lord's Supper. All life consists of these two:—throwing
and knaves from our company continually;
and recieving truth or wise men into our
tinually. He who is out of the Church and opposes it is
no less an
agent of religion than he who is in it: to be
an error and to be cast out is a part of
God's design. No
man can embrace true art till he has explored and cast
art (such is the nature of mortal things): or
Note: The number 46 appears at the upper left in ink.
he will be himself cast out by those who have
ready embraced true art. Thus my picture is a history
of art and science, the
foundation of truth, which is
humanity itself. What are all the gifts of the spirit but
mental gifts? Whenever any individual rejects error
and embraces truth, a last
judgement passes upon
Over the head of the Saviour and Redeemer the Holy
Spirit like a dove is
surrounded by a blue heaven in
which are the two cherubim that bowed over the ark;
for here the temple is opened in heaven and the ark
of the covenant is as a dove of
peace. The curtains are
drawn apart, Christ having rent the veil: the candle-
and the table of shew-bread appear on each side:
a glorification of angels with harps
surrounds the dove.
The temple stands on the mount of God: from it
flows on each side a river of
life, on whose banks
grows the tree of life, among whose branches temples
pinnacles, tents and pavilions, gardens and groves
display paradise with its inhabitants
walking up and
down in conversations concerning mental delights.
Here they are no
longer talking of what is good and
Note: The number 47 is crossed out and replaced by 90 in pencil.
evil, or of what is right or wrong, and puzzling
in Satan's labyrinth, but are conversing with eternal
realities as they
exist in the human imagination. We are
in a world of generation and death, and this
must cast off if we would be painters such as Rafael, Mi
chael Angelo, and
the ancient sculptors: if we do not cast
off this world, we shall be only Venetian
will be cast off and lost from art.
Jesus is surrounded by beams of glory in which
are seen all around him infants
emanating from him:
these represent the eternal births of intellect from the
divine humanity. A rainbow surrounds the throne and
the glory, in which youthful
nuptials recieve the infants
in their hands. In eternity woman is the emanation of
man; she has no will of her own; there is no such thing
in eternity as a female will.
On the side next Baptism are seen those called in the
Bible Nursing Fathers and
Nursing Mothers; they represent
Education. On the side next the Lord's Supper, the Holy
Family, consisting of Mary, Joseph, John the Baptist, Za-
charias, and Elizabeth
receiving the bread and wine,
among other spirits of just made perfect. Beneath these
Note: The number 58 appears at the upper left in ink.
a cloud of women and children are taken up, fleeing
from the rolling cloud which separates the wicked from
the seats of bliss: these
represent those who tho' willing
were too weak to reject error without the assistance
and countenance of those already in the truth: for a
man can only reject error by
the advice of a friend
or by the immediate inspiration of God. It is for this
reason, among many others, that I have put the Lord's
Supper on the left hand of the
throne, for it appears
so at the last judgement, for a protection.
The painter hopes that his friends, Anytus Melitus,
and Lycon, will percieve
that they are not now in
ancient Greece; and, tho' they can use the poison of
calumny, the English public will be convinced that
such a picture as this could never be
painted by a
madman or by one in a state of outrageous manners,
as these bad men
both print and publish by all the
means in their power. The painter begs public
tection and all will be well.
Men are admitted into heaven,—not because they have
governed their passions, but because they
have cultivated their understandings. The
Note: The number 49 is crossed out and replaced by 91 in pencil.
heaven are not negations of passion, but realities
intellect from which all the passions emanate uncurbed
in their eternal glory.
The fool shall not enter into
heaven, let him be ever so holy; holiness is not the price
of entrance into heaven. Those who are cast out are all
those who, having no
passions of their own because no
intellect, have spent their lives in curbing and
other people's by the various arts of poverty and cruelty
of all kinds.
The modern Church crucifies Christ with
the head downwards. Woe, woe, woe to you,
Even murder the courts of justice (more merciful than
the Church) are
whispered to allow is not done in
passion, but in cool-blooded design and intention.
Many suppose that before the creation all was
solitude and chaos: this is the
most pernicious idea
that can enter the mind, as it takes away all
the Bible and limits all existence to
creation and to chaos, to the time and space fixed
by the corporeal vegetative eye, and leaves the man
who entertains such an idea
the habitation of
unbelieving demons. Eternity exists and all
things in eternity,
independent of creation which
Note: The number 50 appears at the upper left in ink.
was an act of mercy. I have represented those who
are in eternity by some in a cloud within the
rainbow that surrounds the throne;
appear as in a cloud when any thing of creation,
judgement, is the subjects of contem-
plation, tho' their whole contemplation is
these things; the reason they so appear is the hu-
miliation of the
reasoning and doubting selfhood
and the giving all up to inspiration. By this it
will be seen that I do not consider either the
just or the wicked to be in a supreme
to be, every one of them, states of the sleep which
the soul may fall
into in its deadly dreams of
good and evil, when it leaves Paradise following
Many persons such as Paine and Voltaire,
with some of the ancient Greeks, say:
not converse concerning good and evil; we will
Paradise and liberty.” You may say so
in spirit, but not in the mortal body,
pretend, till after a last judgement; for in Para-
dise they have no
corporeal and mortal body; that
Note: The number 51 is crossed out and replaced by 92 in pencil.
originated with the fall and was called death,
and cannot be removed but by a last judgement.
While we are in the world of mortality,
suffer; the whole creation groans to be delivered.
There will always be as
many hypocrites born as
honest men, and they will always have superior
mortal things. You cannot have liberty
in this world without what you call moral
virtue, and you cannot have moral virtue with-
out the slavery of that half of the human
who hate what you call moral virtue.
The nature of hatred and envy and of all the
mischiefs in the world are here
depicted. No one
envies or hates one of his own party; even the
devils love one
another in their own way; they
torment one another for other reasons than hate
envy; these are only employed against the
just. Neither can Seth envy Noah, or Elijah
Abraham, but they may both of them envy the
success of Satan or of Og or
Molech. The horse
never envies the peacock, nor the sheep the goat;
but they envy
a rival in life and existence
Note: The number 52 appears at the upper left in ink.
whose ways and means exceed their own. Let him
be of what class of animals he will, a dog will
envy a cat who is pamperd at the expense
his comfort, as I have often seen. The Bible
never tells us that Devils torment
thro' envy; it is thro' this that they torment the
just. But for what
do they torment one another?
Ianswer,—For the coercive laws of hell, moral
hypocrisy. They torment a hypocrite when he is
discovered: they punish a failure
in the tormentor
who has suffered the subject of his torture to
escape. In hell
all is self-righteousness; there
is no such thing there as forgiveness of sin;
who does forgive sin is crucified as an
abettor of criminals, and he who performs works
of mercy in any shape whatever is punished, and,
destroyed,—not thro' envy or hatred or
malice, but thro' self-righteousness
it does God service—which God is Satan. They do
one another,—they contemn or despise
one another. Forgiveness of sin is only
at the judge-
ment-seat of Jesus the Saviour, where the accuser
Note: The number 53 is crossed out and replaced by 93 in pencil.
is cast out, not because he sins, but because he
torments the just and makes them do what he con-
demns as sin and what he knows is
their own identity.
It is not because angels are holier than men
or devils that makes them angels,
they do not expect holiness from one another, but
from God only.
The player is a liar when he says: “Angels
are happier than men
because they are better.” Angels
are happier than men and devils because they
are not always prying after good and evil in one
another and eating the tree of
The last judgement is an overwhelming of bad
art and science. Mental Things are
what is called corporeal nobody knows of; its
dwelling-place is a
fallacy and its existence an
imposture. Where is the existence out of mind or
thought? where is it but in the mind of a fool?
Some people flatter themselves that
there will be
no last judgement, and that bad art will be
Note: The number 54 appears at the upper left in ink.
adopted and mixed with good art, that error or
experiment will make a part of truth, and they
boast that it is its foundation. These
themselves; I will not flatter them. Error is created;
eternal: error or creation will be burned
up, and then, and not till then truth or
will appear. It is burned up the moment men
cease to behold the outward
creation, and that to me
it is hindrance and not action; it is, as the
my feet, no part of me.—“What!” it
will be questioned;
“when the sun rises do you
not see a round disk of fire somewhat like a
guinea? “ Oh no! no! I see an innumerable com-
pany of the heavenly host
crying: “Holy, holy, holy
is the Lord God Almighty!” I question
not my cor-
poreal or vegetative eye any more than I would
question a window
a sight: I look
thro' it, and not with it.
The last judgement [will be] when all those are
cast away who trouble religion
concerning good and evil, or eating of the tree of
Note: The number 55 is crossed out and replaced by 94 in pencil.
those knowledges or reasonings which hinder the
vision of God turning all into a consuming fire,
when imagination, art and
science, and all intel-
lectual gifts, all the gifts of the Holy Ghost, are
upon as of no use, and only contention re-
mains to man; then the last judgement begins,
and its vision is seen by the eye of every one
according to the situation he